When we have a bunch of data, we must organize and visualize it in order to make sense of it. Hans Rosling, a Swedish doctor, mathematician, and professor, has a great video showing one of the earliest methods used to visualize data.

A standard way to visualize categorical data is by finding the **frequency** of different occurrences. For example, let’s say we have a random sample of 50 statistics students and the country in which they live.

** Dataset: **country

(first six rows)

In this spreadsheet, each row represents one student (except Row 1, which is the header). For example, the student represented by Row 2 is from the United States.

If we want to know the most common country in which statistics students live, we should make a frequency table by counting the number of occurrences of each country, e.g.

Country | Frequency |

China | 12 |

US | 10 |

India | 8 |

Japan | 8 |

Germany | 3 |

Mexico | 3 |

Other | 6 |

We can do this manually, or use a statistical program. Let’s see how it’s done using R.

**This is a preview of Lesson 2. To access the full book, please purchase a hard copy or a digital version. If you opt for the digital version, you will receive a link via email within 1 business day.**

Continue to Lesson 3, or select a lesson below.

Lesson 1: Introduction to Statistical Research Methods

Lesson 2: Visualizing Data

Lesson 3: Central Tendency

Lesson 4: Variability

Lesson 5: Standardizing

Lesson 6: Normal Distribution

Lesson 7: Sampling Distributions

Lesson 8: Estimation

Lesson 9: Hypothesis Testing

Lesson 10: t-Tests for Dependent Samples

Lesson 11: t-Tests for Independent Samples

Lesson 12: Intro to One-Way ANOVA

Lesson 13: One-Way ANOVA: Test significance of differences

Lesson 14: Correlation

Lesson 15: Linear Regression

Lesson 16: Chi-Squared Tests

Afterward

Index