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Lesson 1  Introduction to Statistical Research Methods 
Lesson 2  Visualizing Data 
Lesson 3  Central Tendency 
Lesson 4  Variability 
Lesson 5  Standardizing 
Lesson 6  Normal Distribution 
Lesson 7  Sampling Distributions 
Lesson 8  Estimation 
Lesson 9  Hypothesis Testing 
Lesson 10  tTests for Dependent Samples 
Lesson 11  tTests for Independent Samples 
Lesson 12  Intro to OneWay ANOVA 
Lesson 13  OneWay ANOVA: Test significance of differences 
Lesson 14  Correlation 
Lesson 15  Linear Regression 
Lesson 16  ChiSquared Tests 
Afterward  
Index 
You’ve now seen two ways of judging whether or not a sample mean is likely or unlikely. The first is by looking at where the sample mean falls on the sampling distribution in relation to the population mean. The second is by looking at the confidence interval (typically a 95% CI) for the true population mean if everyone were to have that intervention (), and see if the original population mean falls in this range.
In this lesson, we’ll focus again on the first method&where a sample mean falls on the sampling distribution&and formalize the procedure of deciding whether or not this sample mean is likely or unlikely. We do this by finding the pvalue, which is the probability of obtaining that sample mean.
Oftentimes, we decide that a sample mean is significantly unlikely if the pvalue is less than 0.05 (called our alpha level, or significance level).
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