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Lesson 1  Introduction to Statistical Research Methods 
Lesson 2  Visualizing Data 
Lesson 3  Central Tendency 
Lesson 4  Variability 
Lesson 5  Standardizing 
Lesson 6  Normal Distribution 
Lesson 7  Sampling Distributions 
Lesson 8  Estimation 
Lesson 9  Hypothesis Testing 
Lesson 10  tTests for Dependent Samples 
Lesson 11  tTests for Independent Samples 
Lesson 12  Intro to OneWay ANOVA 
Lesson 13  OneWay ANOVA: Test significance of differences 
Lesson 14  Correlation 
Lesson 15  Linear Regression 
Lesson 16  ChiSquared Tests 
Afterward  
Index 
Now you’ve seen that by knowing the mean and standard deviation of a normally distributed population, we can describe how a value compares to others in the population in terms of its percentile. And, we can also deduce the percent of values inbetween, less than, or greater than any values.
In this lesson, we’ll apply this same logic to samples. How can we decide if a sample of values is typical or atypical? Let’s start with a simple example.
We have this population (for simplicity, N = 5):
21 24 65 42 79
Now let’s say we randomly select a sample of size n = 2, and we get 21 and 24.
21 24 65 42 79
How can we decide if this sample is typical of the population? You may guess that we can compare the mean of this sample to the mean of the population. That’s a start.
= 22.5
= 46.2
The mean of the sample looks very different from the mean of the population, but how different? Well, let’s look at the means we could get from all other possible samples of size n=2.
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