PURCHASE A DIGITAL COPY PURCHASE A HARD COPY Lesson 1 Introduction to Statistical Research Methods Lesson 2 Visualizing Data Lesson 3 Central Tendency Lesson 4 Variability Lesson 5 Standardizing Lesson 6 Normal Distribution Lesson 7 Sampling Distributions Lesson 8 Estimation Lesson 9 Hypothesis Testing Lesson 10 t-Tests for Dependent Samples Lesson 11 t-Tests for Independent Samples Lesson 12 Intro to One-Way ANOVA Lesson 13 One-Way ANOVA: Test significance of differences Lesson 14 Correlation Lesson 15 Linear Regression Lesson 16 Chi-Squared Tests Afterward Index

In this lesson you’ll continue with t-tests, but this time for independent samples. In this case, we have two groups of subjects (which should be randomly placed into these groups) and we can either observe certain data or do an experiment. An experiment involves direct interaction of some sort with the subjects.

Observation examples:

1. You’re the CEO of a machine manufacturing company with two plants that produce approximately equal numbers of products, and you want to know if one plant is more efficient than the other in terms of product quality. To test this, you observe the proportion of defective equipment made each quarter at each plant. Your data would look something like this:

In this example n will be the same for each sample, but this doesn’t have to be the case to do an independent-samples t-test.

1. You’re the superintendent of a school district and want to know if AP History scores are about equal among two high schools in your district. To test this, you collect the AP History test scores of everyone in the two high schools who took the test. Your data will look something like this:

In this example, the number in each sample is different: High School 1 has k students who took the AP History test; High School 2 has n students who did so.

Experiment examples:

1. You want to know if exercise affects creativity differently in males than females. You have a group of 36 female volunteers and 42 male volunteers take a creativity test, then exercise for 30 minutes and retake the test. You then compare the differences in creativity between males and females.
1. You want to compare the effects of two acne medications to determine which is more effective. You have two random groups of people (about the same age and of both genders) take each medication and after four weeks you compare the results.

Hopefully you now understand the difference between dependent and independent samples. Let’s now discuss how to conduct this type of t-test.

To continue learning, purchase Street-Smart Stats: A Friendly Introduction to Statistical Research Methods.